The turbocharger is a main part used in the engine systems of modern vehicles. It helps in increasing the engine power so that the vehicle engine can provide better power and performance in every situation.
In this post, we will discuss turbochargers in detail. What is a turbocharger, and how does it work? What are the types, parts, advantages, and disadvantages of turbochargers?
What Is A Turbocharger?
A turbocharger is a component used in modern vehicle engines to increase the velocity and volume of air flowing into the engine’s internal combustion chamber. A turbocharger uses the power of the engine’s exhaust gases to rotate the turbine at a higher velocity, causing the turbocharger’s turbine to push airflow into the engine’s internal combustion chamber at greater speed and pressure.
The increased airflow into the internal combustion chamber of a turbocharged engine ignites the fuel more easily, and the engine provides more power and better efficiency. At present, turbochargers are being used in both diesel and gasoline-powered engines, as turbochargers help increase the power of the engine.
How Does A Turbocharger Work?
In vehicles, a turbocharger is connected to the engine, whose turbine rotates with the energy obtained from the engine’s exhaust gases. The turbine of a turbocharger is connected to a compressor wheel. The turbocharger’s turbine is located in the exhaust stream of the engine and converts the exhaust gases into mechanical energy to rotate the turbine wheel.
The compressor wheel of the turbocharger is located in the air intake system of the engine, where the turbocharger draws in outside air and injects it into the engine with high pressure.
When the engine is running, the exhaust gases from the engine flow through the turbine housing of the turbocharger. These exhaust gases pass through the turbine wheel of the turbocharger, causing the turbine of the turbocharger to rotate, and are transmitted through the shaft of the turbocharger to the compressor wheel located at the other end.
The turbocharger’s compressor wheel draws in outside air more quickly than the inlet air, and the turbocharger compresses the air before it goes into the air intake manifold. This compressed air contains more oxygen and is denser. The turbocharger injects compressed air into the internal combustion chamber of the engine. This speeds up the process of burning fuel in the internal combustion chamber of the engine. which provides more power to the engine.
The wastegate and bypass valve are two important components of a turbocharger. The wastegate is a valve that controls the amount of exhaust gases flowing through the turbine wheel and boost pressure. When boost pressure exceeds a certain level, a bypass valve is used to release the compressed air, preventing over-boosting and potentially damaging the engine.
Where Is The Turbocharger Located?
The location of the turbocharger depends on the vehicle model and engine make. Typically, in normal vehicles, the turbocharger is located in the exhaust system and near the engine.
1. In Gasoline Engines
In gasoline engines, the turbocharger is located between the engine’s exhaust system and the catalytic converter, due to which the hotter exhaust gases can easily rotate the turbine wheel.
2. In Diesel Engines
Often, in diesel-powered vehicles, the turbocharger is mounted directly on the engine. In diesel engines, the turbocharger is often mounted in the engine block.
3. In The Airplane
In airplanes, the turbocharger is mounted in the nacelle. The nacelle is the housing that surrounds the engine in an airplane.
Types Of Turbochargers
- Single Turbo
- Twin Turbo
- Twin Scroll Turbo
- Variable Geometry Turbo
- Variable Twin Scroll Turbo
- Electric Turbo
Parts Of Turbocharger
There are six parts to a turbocharger used in a vehicle’s engine. These parts are as follows.
1. Compressor Wheel
The compressor wheel is an important part of a turbocharger. The compressor wheel of a turbocharger compresses the air entering the engine and sends it more quickly to the engine’s internal combustion chamber. Due to this, the fuel combustion process in the internal combustion chamber of the engine is accelerated.
2. Turbine Wheel
In a turbocharger, the turbine wheel is driven by the exhaust gases of the engine, when the exhaust gases of the engine pass through the center of the turbine. It then rotates, and the turbine drives the compressor wheel of the turbocharger.
3. Center Housing
One part of the turbocharger is the center housing. This part connects the compressor wheel and turbine wheel of the turbocharger. The main shaft and bearings are located in this housing.
The actuator part of a turbocharger controls the amount of boost from the turbocharger by adjusting the position of the wastegate, due to which the engine provides more power when the engine is accelerated. The actuator works on the principle of vacuum.
A wastegate is a type of valve in a turbocharger that controls the exhaust gases flowing through the turbine wheel of the turbocharger, due to which the turbocharger can work successfully.
6. Fluid & Coolant Lines
Fluid is that part of the turbocharger by which the shaft and bearings of the turbocharger are lubricated, due to which the compressor wheel and turbine wheel of the turbocharger rotate smoothly without friction or overheating.
Q. What are the 3 main parts of a turbocharger?
By the way, there are many parts to a turbocharger. But there are three main parts to a turbocharger. turbine wheel, compressor wheel, shaft and bearing.
Q. What controls turbo pressure?
The turbo pressure is controlled by the actuator and wastegate, due to which the turbocharger works successfully.
Q. What causes turbo failure?
The reason for the failure of any turbocharger is the lack of lubrication of the internal parts. because the shaft of the turbocharger works on the basis of lubrication. But due to a lack of lubrication, these shafts seize, due to overheating from friction. Or there is looseness in the shaft, due to which the compressor wheel breaks.
Banty is the owner of Autorepairszone.com & is also a vehicle mechanic by profession. We have almost 12 years of experience in the field of automotive repair, and we strive to provide you with accurate information about vehicle malfunctions and repairs based on our experience.